The Iranian Egyptian Relations:
The Shiite Factor & Muslem Brotherhood!!
Dr. Ahmad Rasem Al-Nafis
From doctrinal point of view, Muslims are divided into 2 major subdivisions; Shiia and Sunna.
Both faiths agree that holly Quran and the statements of the prophet Mohammad (Hadith) are the principle sources of Islamic legislation, but they differ about the proper way of documenting the prophet’s statements and hence about the proper way of correct and orthodox understanding Islam.
Shiite’s also believe that Muslims should obey the instructions and advices of (Ahlulbait) or the prophet’s family, strictly speaking 12 Imams the first is (Ali Ibn Abi Taleb), the prophet’s cousin and then 11 Imams born from his marriage with Fatema Al-Zahraa, (the prophet’s daughter).
The 12’th Imami Shiite’s now constitute the majority of Shiite world, but there are obvious numbers of Ismaili and Zaidi Shia in India, Syria and Yemen and other areas of the world.
From the first look, it seems that there are no major differences between the 2 faiths that can justify clashes or wars between them.
It is also astonishing to hear such warnings against the threat of the so called Shiite crescent because the Shiite doctrine forbids aggression especially against Muslims even if they are from other faith.
Revision of Islamic history will reveal that faith differences were the result of political and psychological factors and not the reverse.
Political ambitions of some of the prophet’s companions, the disinclination of others towards Imam Ali and Ahlulbait also the tribal factors lead many of them to oppose Imam Ali and Ahlulbait and even to launch wars against them and their supporters namely Shiite Muslims.
Last August 2006, I was a member of the Egyptian delegates attending the 19’th conference of Islamic Unity held in Tehran by the (World Forum for Proximity of Islamic Schools of Thought), most of the Egyptian delegates were Sunni scholars from Al-Azhar University and they were discussing warmly subjects of common interest to all Muslims regardless of their faith, at the same time stressing the need for Islamic Unity and cooperation.
In spite of the importance of the dialogue between Sunni and Shiite scholars it will only alleviate symptoms, but it will never be enough to resolve the dispute implemented by Arab dictators like Bani Omia who are the only beneficiary of such divisions.
From the Shiite point of view, the war against Ahlulbait started by putting aside Imam Ali from his right position as a political and religious leader of the Islamic state in spite of being the first Muslim, the husband of prophet’s daughter and in spite of the recommendations made by the prophet for his companions, to obey him.
Exclusion of Imam Ali continued for 25 years ended by killing of the third Khalifa Othman ibn Affan during a revolution of Muslims against his practices of discrimination, injustice and oppression and then Imam Ali was chosen by people as the 4’th Khalifa.
This was not tolerated by Anti Ahlulbait forces, they regrouped themselves and launched 3 successive wars against his leadership in less than 5 years; The Kamel, Seffeen, and the Nahrawan wars.
Lastly Imam Ali was assassinated by one these insurgents called Ibn Molgim in year 40 and his son Imam Al-Hassan was chosen as a successor leader of Islamic State for only few months.
In year 41 (661), he was compelled to make peace with Moawia Ibn AbiSofian, stepping down from his post for Moawia in order to stop the blood shed and to save the lives of the remaining Shiites.
The anti Shiite – anti Ahlulbait campaign continued by Moawia and Imam Al- Hassan was murdered by him at year 50 (661) to pave the way for his son Yazeed to be the head of the Islamic state regardless of all objections against this corrupt and evil person even within the Omawi camp.
In year 61 (680), Imam Hussain Ibn Ali the grandson of the prophet Mohammad moved to Iraq to declare his refusal of establishing the Omawi dynasty which is against the Quran and the teachings of the prophet and he was subjected, his family and his supporters to a mass massacre in Karbalaa in Iraq, now the place of his Shrine.
From the early days following the assassination of Imam Ali, his supporters Shiites became targeted victims of the Omwai brutality aiming to end their existence, and to prevent them from spreading their ideas and the teachings of ahlilubait.
Many of them were executed, even some of them were buried alive like Abdul Rahman ibn Hassan Al-Anzy.
At the same time Moawia ibn Abi Sofian launched an illusive propaganda campaign against Imam Ali during the weekly Gomaa ceremonies, they were cursing the Imam and describing him as a criminal and out of law!!.
In retaliation of the these horrific massacres and continued oppression, several Shiite uprisings erupted against the Omawi dynasty.
The first was the (the repentant revolution 61- 681), its leader was Soliman ibn Sorad Al-Khozaay, but it failed in achieving any of its goals because of lack of experience and proper planning.
In year 62- 682 there was another Shiite uprising lead by Al-Mokhtar Al-Thaqafy, a veteran warrior and genius planner and he was able to achieve most of his goals of bringing most of the Omawi criminals to just revenge.
Omawi suppression and mass killings directed against Shiite Muslims reached another peak in the days of the atrocious Al-Hagag Al Thaqafy who was the Omawi military ruler of Iraq at years (73- 95).
The number of executions made by Al-Hagag against Shia was estimated to be 120,000 and the number of those found in prisons after his death was about 33,000; which is a very huge number compared to the number of population at that time.
The Omawi Dynasty continued only for 83 years till it was removed by the Abasyyen.
In spite of being relatives of the prophet Mohammad, their attitude against Ahlulbait and Shiite Muslims was even more worse than the Omawi’s, and the Shiite uprisings against their oppression continued and faced by the same brutality and mass killings (Revise the Tabari History and the Killings of Al-Talibyyn by Abo Al-Farag Al- Asfahany).
They were continuously following Talibbyn wherever they found them, depriving them of all their human wrights and you can read this highly expressive story in (The History of Egypt Rulers) by Al-Kendy.
He wrote in the events of year (242- 857): “one soldier was brought to punishment by the Yazeed Ibn Abdullah, the Abassy ruler of Egypt, he ordered his punishment to be 10 knocks and when the man begged forgiveness for the sake of Imam Al-Hassan and al-Hussain (the grandson of prophet Mohammad), thirty knocks were added and when the case was raised to the Abbasi Khalifa he ordered another 100 knocks, then the man was deported to Iraq.
In 248 one grandson of the prophet was arrested and accused of political coup, the ruler send his troops and ordered them to burn his home, all his followers were arrested and knocked with knouts and tortured and then they were deported to Iraq.
The abbassy Khalifa the made a decree to all his aides: that no one of the grandson of Ali ibn Abi Talib should own a farm, no one is allowed to ride a horse, no one is allowed to leave Egypt Capital (Al-Fustat), no one should have more than one slave and if any complaint is made against any of them, it should be accepted immediately and the Talibi has no right to defend himself.
The same event was mentioned also by Ibn Khaldoun in his history
So, it was a constant policy of exclusion and isolation of the prophet’s grandsons from communication with Islamic community because they always had a very high position and respect among most Muslims not only because of their lineage but also because of their high morals and deep knowledge in religion.
The Abbassi Situation became very bad when a Ismaili Shiite group (The Fatimyyn, also offspring of the prophet) succeeded in establishing a grand and powerful state with its capital in Egypt (Al-Qahera, now Cairo) which posed an existential threat to the corrupt Abassy State.
The Fatimy State included vast areas of the Islamic world extending from Morocco in the west to Syria in the east and their spiritual position was very high by controlling the holy pilgrimage places in Mecca and Medina.
The Abassy situation became more worse when Al-Basasery a Shiite leader loyal to the Fatimi State took control of Baghdad, the Capital of the Abassy State in year 449 (1057) and made ceremonies for the Fatimyyn, an event, if continued, would changed completely the map of the Islamic world.
The Abassy State survived after that until it was destroyed completely by the Mongolian invasion in year 656 (1058).
The Fatimi State existed mainly in Egypt from year 362 (973) until its collapse 565 (1170) because of internal conflicts, administrative mistakes and the conspiracy of its enemy the Abassy State.
The deathblow came from the Kurdish mercenary Salah El Deen Al-Ayopi who was a staunch enemy of Shiite Faith and Ahlulbait, he made a coup against the Fatimi Khalifa, killing him by poison, putting all the Fatimi Family in jail for more than 60 years, deporting most of the Egyptian Shia outside their country, closing Al-Azhar University for 100 year, banning completely Shiite Culture and preventing Shiite Scholars from teaching and Fatwa in Mosques and anywhere.
After collapse of the Fatimi State Egypt became under the rule of the Ayopi Family, returned back to be one of the provinces nominally attached to the corrupt and near to collapse Abbassi State before vanishing completely due to the Mongolian invasion.
The corrupt Ayopi Family remained in control of Egypt and Syria for 80 years, then vanished to pave the way to Al-Mamaleek i.e. the slaves who took control of Egypt for six additional centuries of degeneration and loss.
This historical overview gives us some idea about how Shiite’s were struggling for life all these centuries against the stubborn hostile Arabic mind raising the flag of the prophet’s Sunna to justify killing and mass murdering of his grandsons and its insistence to abolish them from over the earth.
The manic and atavistic Sunni Arab mind does not care about any losses of civilization or in souls to achieve his final and satanic impossible dream; an Islamic world free of Shia and if he fails in achieving this by swords and bullets, he tries to achieve this by mass propaganda.
Many Arab intellectuals still consider Salah Al-Deen Al-Ayopi as there hero because he banned Shiite school from Egypt and restored proper Sunni thought in spite of the fact the he demolished the most of Al-Giza pyramids and left only 3 of it and in spite of the fact that he demolished the great Fatimi Library and sent most of its books either to the scrape or to the unknown.
The manic Sunni Arab mind is not credible when complaining from the American double standard because these people who invented the double and even triple standards!!.
Till this moment, most of the Egyptians are still loyal to Ahlulbait which is considered by some as a hidden Shii’sm in spite of loss of any correct knowledge about Shiite school of thought.
It is never true that Egyptians returned to their original Sunni faith after the fall of the Fatimi State because at that time they had only 2 choices: either annihilation or hiding their Shiite Faith and accommodation with the imposed new conditions (The rule of Qaraqoush!!).
Still, this expression (The rule of Qaraqoush) the main assistant of Salah ElDeen is used by Egyptians to express what they consider an extreme oppression and injustice.
The Wahabi Factor:
It is a recent and more virulent and manic strain of anti Shiisim, which was invented by a nameless Sunni cleric Mohammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab who was exploited by the British Intelligence in the 18’th century as a useful tool to stir chaos within the territories of the Ottoman Empire, the enemy of Europe and west at that time.
Wahabism considers all other non Muslim Wahhabi’s as infidels especially Suffis and Shiite’s.
The dream of establishing Wahabi Empire replacing the Ottoman empire was ended by Mohammad Ali Basha, the ruler of Egypt in the early 19’th century and since then they are trying to extend their moral and political influence by propagating their ideas allover the region and the whole world spending billions of dollars every year.
One of their main areas of work and influence now is Egypt.
Thousands of Wahabi establishments are present now everywhere in Egypt, even in the smallest villages, funded by the Saudi money under the sight of the Egyptian government with no objection.
The Saudi influence in Egypt reached its peak following Naser’s defeat in 1967 and the wide turn in his relations with Saudis from confrontation to dependence on Saudi conditional aid.
The Saudi influence in Egypt was not begun in the aftermath of 1967 defeat, it started early in the 20’th century through Saudi clients namely; Moheb El-Deen Al-Khateeb and Mohammad Rasheed Reda who were guiding this brilliant young man Hassan Al-Banna; the founder of Muslim Brotherhood Society in 1928.
Both (Al-Khateeb and Reda) were strictly anti Shiite, the first published his book (The Broad lines of Shiite Religion) and Reda published his book (Sunna and Shiia, Wahabia & Rafeda) attacking Shiite’s, describing them as apostates.
Definitely, the present Muslim brotherhood are not strictly carrying the original Wahabbi version, nor Hassan Al-Banna was a strict Wahabbi, but there are many in common between them; both consider himself as the main defendant of Sunni Islam against what they consider as Shiite expansions dreams.
The present Situation
The political Sunnism, now under the leadership of Saudi Arabia considers any Shiite political entity as an existential threat that should be ended as early as possible.
It is a constant principle dating to the end of the Fatimi State before 800 years which is still vivid in their memory.
This why all the Arab regimens stood behind Sadam Hussain in his 8 years war on Iran.
The manic Arab Sunnism with its long term experience in plotting and conspiracy was able to convince the west that Iran is posing a terrorist threat against them in spite of the fact that Wahabbi terrorism is just an extension of Sunni Islam and is not different at all from it.
The present crisis between Arabs and Iran was never because of the alleged Iranian support of terrorism, but because of the existential threat posed against political Sunnism which enabled these absolute monarchies to survive all these centuries.
The present situation in Iraq is a clear example of this refusal of coexistence with a Shiite Arabic state, and that is why they insist to describe Arab Shiite’s of Iraq as being Iranians (Safawi’s)!!.
Most of the Arabic regimens are supporting now Al-Qaida operatives in Iraq recruiting them with money, personnel and logistic support in hope of ending the Shiite nightmare.
When most of the terrorist organizations working in Egypt in the past decades were funded by Saudi money and supplied by Whabbi decrees, the Egyptian authorities were putting blame on Iran, saying no single word on their Saudi friends.
The Saudi (Wahabii) alliance with Egyptian rulers reached another peak during the Israeli aggression on Lebanon last summer when the Wahabbi speakers were given free hands to attack Shiite’s and Hizbollah describing it as apostate and more dangerous on Islam than Israel.
The manic Sunni anti Shiite mind was the driving factors for statements of Abdullah, king of Jordan against what he called the threat posed by the Shiite crescent.
Also, this manic mind was the motive behind the statements of Mubarak of Egypt denying Shiite’s Arabic attribution as if Arabic nationality should be restricted only to Sunnis!!.
The Israeli attack on Hizbollah that came only 3 months after Mubarak’s speech revealed that his statements was an advanced permission for Israel to do its job.
Those acquainted with some hidden aspects of the Iranian Egyptian relations know that the debate about cultural relations is a major obstacle for restoring full political ties because of the Egyptian reservations on this issue.
Many of the envoys met with president Mubarak received the same message: No objection against political or financial relations, but Iran should not take benefit of these ties to propagate Shiite faith among Egyptians.
Late in 2003, at the same time of the meeting held between Mubarak and Khatami in Switzerland, the Egyptian authorities were practicing its annual habit of arresting a Shiite group in a city near the Red Sea.
This was not an isolated practice but a constant policy aiming at terrifying people from converting to the Shiite faith.
My personal quota of this manic behavior was 3 times in jail; 1987, 1989 and the last one in 1996.
What is more important is that the Egyptian authorities failed to find any solid proof of the alleged Iranian support to Egyptian Shiite’s.
At the same time the Iranian strategic priorities is not supporting Shiite minorities, but facing threat from Israel and America and that is why they are supporting Hamas movement in Palestine in spite it is not Shiite and just a branch of Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood Society.
The Egyptian authorities ban and confiscate Shiite books sent from Iran or from any other place, while putting no restrictions on any amount of Wahabi terrorist books sent from Saudi Arabia without limits.
The Situation of Muslim Brotherhood
It is an ambiguous situation.
They consider themselves as a leading Sunni party committed for defending Sunni faith against all kinds of apostasies including of course those of the Shiite faith.
The Wahabbi connection has a vital role in formulating their beliefs which is evident to those who approached the society like me, since I was a member in the Muslim Brotherhood for 9 years (1976-1985).
During this period, I heard these accusations several times from the leaders of the Society, including Mostafa Mashhor their ex chairman.
A clear and evident example of their view towards Shiite faith was the statements of their ex chairman Omar Al-Telmesany who said in a speech to Al-Mosawar Weekly magazine: Iranians are following the Shiite faith and we are Sunni people, the conflict between Shiite’s and Sunni is due to Shiite’s not Sunni’s….
It is a deep and serious conflict… When Khomeini made his revolution we supported him in spite of this serious and deep faith conflict….. we supported them because the Iranian people were oppressed from his ruler… We gave them a political support because we should help the oppressed to get his freedom not because they are Shiite’s.
So, Mr Telmesany’s support to Iran is merely political and the Sunni Shiite conflict is a serious one and Shiite’s are fully responsible for this.
The Iranian Brotherhood relations passed in ups and downs and according to the Iranian researcher Abbas Khamiar: there are numerous points of convergence between the 2 sides.
The most important is their common belief in Islamic Unity, the party has no passive stand against Shiite ideas and beliefs as the founder of the party Hassan Albana was convinced that there are good chances of approximation between Sunni and Shiite’s.
Another meeting point was their passive view towards national ideology, since the Brotherhood considers that Arab Nationals should bear the responsibility of Palestine occupation.
The third converging point is their common stand from Palestine and Al-Quds occupation.
The main point of divergence is the fears of Brotherhood from Shiite extension in their areas of influence.
These fears were expressed by Tunisian Rashed Al-Ganoushy, who said that Iran should invite non Muslims for Islam instead of inviting Sunnis to be Shiite’s.
This political support to Shiite Hezbollah during the Israeli war on Lebanon last summer was evident when the present leader of the Brotherhood declared his readiness to send 10,000 men to fight beside Hezbollah against Israel.
At the same time, speakers of the Brotherhood denounced the anti Shiite decrees made by Wahabi clerks considering that Shiite’s are more dangerous on Islam than Israel.
Permanent lines of Partition!!
Immediately after failure of the Israeli war to achieve its goals, there was a ban Arabic (state of panic) because of the rising popularity of Shiite Hezbollah and its leader Sayed Hassan Nasrallah –the only Arabic leader not defeated by Israel- among all Muslims, not only Shiite’s!!.
This means one thing; collapse of the imaginary lines of partition between Shiite’s and Sunnis thought once, as permanent, fixed and cannot be breached.
One manifestation of this fever was the statements of Sheikh Al-Qaradawi –a prominent Sunni and Brotherhood clerk- among a group of Egyptian journalists late August 2006 condemning Shiite trials of converting Sunni communities towards Shiite thought, describing Sayed Hassan Nasrallah as a Shiite fanatic and wondering how could a Shiite Egyptian writer called (Ahmad Rasem Al-Nafis) dared to issue a book replying one of his books?!.
He continued; Egypt is the homeland of Sunni Islam and we should never allow Shiite’s to penetrate our country.
The same situation was confirmed by him in another statements to the Egyptian newspaper Al-Masry Al-Yoom in 26-11-2006 calling for respect of the final lines of partition between Sunnis and Shiite’s (denying the trials of Hasan Nasrallah to get benefit of his victory on Isarel to expand Shiism and Shiite influence among Sunni Muslims).
The same situation was repeated by another Islamic Sunni leader near to the Brotherhood (Mohamad Saleem AlAwa).
He asked Shiite’s to stop trials of propagating their faith among Sunnis especially in Egypt and Morocco because this will widen the rift between the two sects.
There are no great differences between the official and the brotherhood situation from the Iranian Egyptian relations.
Both of them are suffering the same panic and having the same headache that is; fear of conversion of Sunnis to Shiite faith.
Both are welcoming one sided Iranian Egyptian relations for the benefit of this atavistic version of Sunni Islam founded by this monster Moawia Ibn Abi Sofian, the true founder of Sunni Islam!!.
For the time being, the situations of the Muslim Brotherhood society from Egyptian Shiite’s represent a convergence point with the policies of the Egyptian authorities and a point of divergence between Iran and the Brotherhood.
The Brotherhood initiative for political reform presented in 2004 was more ambiguous about religious freedom than that stated in the present Egyptian constitution, and there were no single word about freedom of doing religious ceremonies of different faith believers.
Finally we do not think that Muslim Brotherhood has a facilitating role in restoring the severed Iranian Egyptian Relations.
There are points of convergence between Iran and the Brotherhood mainly the Palestinian case and others of convergence mainly the fears of the political Sunnism to lose its long and lasting?! Dominance allover the Islamic world which is a psychological but not be a real threat.
Ahmad Rasem Al-Nafis
 الشيعة والتشيع لأهل البيت. مكتبة الشروق الدولية 2006 أحمد راسم النفيس.
 Same source.
 Al-Tabari History part 5 p551
 Al- Shiia and the Revolution. Ahmad Rasem Al-Nafis, Egypt. 2004
 Al- Aqd Al Fareed Ibn Abd Rabo AlAndalosy , Egypt 2004.
 History of Egypt Rulers, Al Kendy Egypt. 2002
 History of Ibn Khaldoun part 4 p 297.
 Eteaz AlHonafa. Al- Maqrizi. Part 2 year 449.
 Egyptians and the Prohibited Shiisim. Ahmad Rasem Al-Nafis. Dar AlMahaja Beirut 2005.
 When Slaves Rule!!. Ahmad Raeem Al-Nafis. Dar AlMahaja Beirut 2005
 Al Khotat Al-Maqrizia. AlMaqrizi. Egypt
 Islamic parties, colonization of Islamic Umma, Ahmad Rasem Al-Nafis Dar AlMahja Beiurut. 2005
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 Al Qabas newspaper Kuwait, 2-9-2006
 Ahmad Raeem AlNafis, AlQahera newspaper 23-3-2004